SHOKOLAD ME'YORIDAN OSHGANDA... - Dono.uz

SHOKOLAD ME’YORIDAN OSHGANDA…

Bolajonlarimiz orasida shokoladni sevmaydiganlari topilmasa kerak. Shu bois, bugun bu mazali shirinlik haqida ayrim ma’lumotlarni e’tiboringizga taqdim etamiz.

MOZIYGA QAYTIB

Frantsuz shokolad ustasi Frantsua Lui Kaye 1819 yili qattiq shokolad tayyorlashni o’rganadi. Kayening sa’y-harakatlari sababli tez orada Shveytsariya «shirinlik taraqqiyoti»ning markaziga aylandi. 1830 yili Sharl-Amede Kolxer yong’oqli shokoladni, 1876 yili Daniel Peter sutli shokoladni o’ylab topadi. 1828 yili gollandiyalik Konrad van Xouten bu sohada yangi sahifa ochadi, ya’ni, kakao kukunini siqib, undan kakao yog’i olishni kashf etdi. Bu ixtiro hozirgi kunda ham shokolad ishlab chiqarishning asosi bo’lib xizmat qilmoqda.

O’ZBEKISTONDA SHOKOLAD ISTE’MOLI QANCHA?

Norasmiy ma’lumotlarga ko’ra, O’zbekistonda shokolad iste’moli har kishi boshiga 400 grammdan to’g’ri keladi (standart shokolad plitkasi 100 gr.ni tashkil etadi). Albatta, bu shokoladni sevib iste’mol qiluvchi shveytsariyaliklar bilan taqqoslaganda juda ham kam. Ular yiliga 13 kg shokolad iste’mol qilishadi. Biroq xitoyliklar bilan solishtirganda ancha ko’p, u yerda kishi boshiga 80-100 gr. shokolad to’g’ri keladi.

Ma’lumotlarga ko’ra, so’nggi uch yil ichida respublikamizdagi shokolad mahsulotlari bozori ham yuqori o’sish sur’atlarini namoyon etmoqda. Asosiy importchilar bu – Rossiya va Ukraina. Biroq respublikamizning o’zida ishlab chiqarilayotgan ayrim shokolad mahsulotlari ham jahonning yetakchi ishlab chiqaruvchilari bo’lgan Mars, Nestle, Cadbury, Ferrero Rocher kabi markalardan qolishmaydi.

“YASAMA SHOKOLAD”NING QILG’ILIKLARI

Zamonaviy aromatizator va emul`gatorlar til sezgi organini, ya’ni odamning maza bilish sensorlarini juda osonlik bilan aldashi mumkin. Ma’lumki, hozirda shokolad ta’mini beruvchi kimyoviy  moddalar juda ko’p, ularni oddiy istemolchi deyarli farqlay olmaydi. Ammo mazasini keltirgani bilan oshqozonni, odam tanasini aldab bo’lmaydi.

Mutaxassis fikri

Gulnoza Isakova, shokolad fabrikasi bosh texnologi

Shokoladni kesganda uning qo’yma yon devorlari odatda qalin bo’lishi kerak. Plitkali shokoladlarni sindirganda esa o’ziga xos qars etgan tovush tiniq holda eshitilishi lozim. Shuningdek, u og’izda tez erib ketishi va haqiqiy shokoladlardan doimo shokolad hidi kelib turishi kerak. Eskirgan mahsulotning esa mazasi aynigani tez bilinadi. Bundan tashqari, uni iste’mol qilganda ko’ngilni behuzur qiladi. Odatda, shokolad 18-20 gradusda quruq va salqin joyda 6 oydan 1 yilgacha saqlanishi kerak. Shokoladga sut qo’shilgan bo’lsa, saqlanish muddati – 3 oy.

HAR NARSANING ME’YORI BOR

Nasiba Eshonqulova, shifokor

Ma’lumki, shokolad inson kayfiyatini ko’tarish bilan birga odamga kuch-quvvat bag’ishlaydi. Shuni aytish joizki, shokolad inson organizmi uchun eng kerakli minerallarga ham boy. Bundan tashqari, shokoladda flavonoid (tabiiy birikmalar) qo’shimchasi ham mavjud. Bunday aralashma organizmda immunitet tizimini kuchaytiradi. Biroq asalning ham ozi shifo, deganlaridek, shokolad borasida ham me’yorni ushlagan ma’qul.

KUNIGA QANCHA SHOKOLAD YESA BO’LADI?!

Shokolad mehnati og’ir, katta jismoniy kuch sarflaydigan kasb sohiblarining asosiy taomiga kiritilgani bejiz emas. Ammo mutaxassislar shokolad organizmga faqatgina foyda keltirishi uchun qora va eng muhimi, sifatli shokoladlarni tanlashni maslahat berishadi. Ahamiyat bersangiz, shokolad plitkasi kataklarga bo’lingan bo’ladi. Shokolad foyda qilishi uchun kuniga shu katakchalardan ikkitasini iste’mol qilsangiz bas.

ICHIMLIKDAN PAYDO BO’LGAN SHIRINLIK

Shokolad tarkibidagi eng asosiy narsa kakaodir. Shirinlikning paydo bo’lishi aynan kakao bilan bog’liq. Eramizdan oldingi 1200-1000 yillarda Markaziy Amerikada yashovchi qabilalar kakaoning ho’l mevasini qaynatib, musallas olgan.

Atstek qabilasi vakillari esa kakao dukkagidan achchiq va ko’pikli ichimlik tayyorlaganlar. «Shokolad» deb nomlangan ushbu ichimlik jangchilar, zodagonlar va ruhoniylar uchun mo’ljallangan edi. Atsteklar bu ichimlik aql va uzoq umr baxsh etadi, deb hisoblaganlar. Taxminiy fikrlarga ko’ra «shokolad» so’zi ana shu ichimlik nomi – «xocolatl» (chokolatl) so’zidan kirib kelgan. Bu so’z «achchiq suv» degan ma’noni anglatadi (xocolli-«achchiq», atl-«suv»). XV asr so’ngida mashhur sayyoh Xristofor Kolumb Amerika yeriga borib qolganida mehmondo’stlik belgisi sifatida unga bir kosa ana shu ichimlikdan hadya qilishgan. XX asrda olimlar shokolad tarkibida kaliy, temir, magniy kabi foydali moddalar va qon-tomir devorlarini mustahkamlab, qon ivishiga qarshi kurashadigan flanovoidlar borligini aniqladi. Tajribalar, hatto shokoladning hidi ham foydali ekani, u organizmni viruslardan himoya qilishda yordam berishini ko’rsatgan.

FAKTLAR

Shokolad sanoatining dunyo miqyosida rivojlanishi XIX asr o’rtalariga to’g’ri keldi. Shu davrda yirik shokolad sanoatchilari paydo bo’ldi, ular o’rtasida shiddatli raqobat boshlandi. Muvaffaqiyat qozonish ilinjida shokoladchilar xaridorlarning e’tiborini tortadigan yangi usullar o’ylab topishga kirishdi. Masalan, Germaniyadagi «Ritter sport» firmasi asoschisi Al`bert Ritter 1932 yilda shokolad bo’lagining odatdagi to’g’ri burchakli shaklini kvadrat shakliga almashtirish orqali boyib ketgandi. Eng qizig’i, ushbu plitkalar mamlakatda to’rtburchak cho’ntakli sport kurtkalari ommalashib borayotgani tufayli ana shu cho’ntaklar uchun o’ylab topilgan. Birinchi marta shokoladli to’rtburchak «Ritter’s Sport Schokolade» nomini olgan. 1970 yillarda shokoladning ustki ko’rinishi kodlashtiriladi: bu g’oya kelib chiqishining sababi rangli televizorlar paydo bo’lishi bilan bog’liq.

Har yili 11 iyulda dunyo hamjamiyati Xalqaro shokolad kuni(World Chocolate Day)ni nishonlaydi. Shokolad kuni birinchi bor 1995 yili Frantsiyada o’tkazilgan.

Sarvar SAFAROV tayyorladi

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